Friday, June 12, 2009 by Mats Larsson
The Peak Oil debate is based on a set of analyses of oil supply and the development of new discoveries. In the case of declining supplies, we will need to understand the many implications of this for future economic growth.
Yes, we will find oil in the future, too. But declining volumes over the past 30 years indicate that this development of declining discoveries will continue in spite of increasing prices.
We need planned and managed change projects in order to reduce our dependence on oil. This is what Global Energy Transformation is all about.

The Peak Oil debate is based on a set of analyses of oil supply and the development of new discoveries. In the case of declining supplies, we will need to understand the many implications of this for future economic growth.

Yes, we will find oil in the future, too. But declining volumes over the past 30 years indicate that this development of declining discoveries will continue in spite of increasing prices.

We need planned and managed change projects in order to reduce our dependence on oil. This is what Global Energy Transformation is all about.

Friday, June 12, 2009 by Mats Larsson

Economics and energy transformation

Friday, June 12, 2009 by Mats Larsson
Several of the key issues of the energy transformation are related to economics and economics to some extent go back to economic realities, but to some extent relate to ideological concerns.
Global Energy Transformation deals with the economic realities that we need to face as oil becomes increasingly scarce. Ideological concerns must, in this respect be subordinated to them. Maybe we need new ideologies or we need to rethink ideologies based on the fact that we will probably have less oil to fuel global transportation in the near future. This will not only mean increasing prices.

Several of the key issues of the energy transformation are related to economics and economics to some extent go back to economic realities, but to some extent relate to ideological concerns.

Global Energy Transformation deals with the economic realities that we need to face as oil becomes increasingly scarce. Ideological concerns must, in this respect be subordinated to them. Maybe we need new ideologies or we need to rethink ideologies based on the fact that we will probably have less oil to fuel global transportation in the near future. This will not only mean increasing prices.

Friday, June 12, 2009 by Mats Larsson

The process of discovering a path towards change

Friday, June 12, 2009 by Mats Larsson
Change is not a sudden and unexpected event. It is a process of learning and discovery which normally unfolds over a long period of time. It may be that change, to many observers, gives the impression of suddenness, such as the seemingly sudden appearance of the Internet and its rapid growth.
However these processes were prepared over years in small steps,  many times taken by people who were not aware of each other or of the end result. When people within US government organizations took the first steps to create the technologies that form the basis for the Internet, the idea that at some point in time, far into the future, would become available to everyone everywhere, would have seemed ridiculous. Yet, investing in the development of these technologies and doing the job of development seemed like good ideas at the time.
Now, in the field of energy transformation, we have a good platform of knowledge in many of the fields where we need to change. We know many things about change needs in transportation, utilities, industrial processes, the built environment, agriculture and behavior change. Yet, many people remain to become informed about these opportunities and even those who are already “in the know” need to sort out ideas and structure the arguments so that we can communicate the key ideas in a structured and coherent way.
It will also be much easier to get people to understand what we are saying if you, Mohammed in Pakistan, convey a message that is similar to the one that Hugo spreads in Germany and that Jaime is talking about in Chile. This does not need to be exactly the same, but we need to agree on some key points.
I suggest that an important similarity between messages in different countries is the one that market based incentives need to be complemented by planned and managed change projects. One other aspect is that all aspects of the change that is necessary will not be covered financially by money from the financial markets. Governments will need to invest and to some extent manage the change processes.
One other important aspect is that we need to combine competences in the project. We need people with different points of view, who could agree that change is necessary, but who do not necessarily share a consensus on everything in the change program. Some people are already aware and they are working on different aspects of technology development or energy analyses or environmental issues. We still need to spread the idea of cooperation to them, or some of them and we need to agree on how to cooperate, at least to some extent, which still remains to be discovered.
Some groups in society need to become aware of the pressing need for change, due to peak oil or to global warming. (The reason for change is not the most important thing to agree on, but peak oil experts may need to become better informed about global warming and experts in environmental issues need to become better informed about peak oil. I need to learn about all kinds of issues related to energy transformation and technology, time permitting.) Economists, to a large extent seem to be unaware of the pressing need for change and they many times argue that we can’t afford large scale change. Do not take my word for it. It is much better if you make up your mind yourself and start by using the below link to the Statements on Oil made by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 2005. It is succinct and makes a good introduction to the subject written by a very serious group of professors.
http://www.kva.se/KVA_Root/publications/committees/energy_statements1.pdf
Business managers and consultants also need to understand the need to change and to cooperate. Sometimes we, initially, need to take steps that do not seem to make financial or business sense at the time. I cannot tell people which these steps are, you will find them in the process of discovery.
Politicians! Yes. They also need to become informed about the need to change and about the options in each area. Politicians will need to understand the areas where market based change will work and in which areas we will need managed projects to drive change. These subjects are covered in depth in Global Energy Transformation, which is published today in the UK and on the 7th of July in the United States.

Change is not a sudden and unexpected event. It is a process of learning and discovery which normally unfolds over a long period of time. It may be that change, to many observers, gives the impression of suddenness, such as the seemingly sudden appearance of the Internet and its rapid growth.

However these processes were prepared over years in small steps,  many times taken by people who were not aware of each other or of the end result. When people within US government organizations took the first steps to create the technologies that form the basis for the Internet, the idea that at some point in time, far into the future, would become available to everyone everywhere, would have seemed ridiculous. Yet, investing in the development of these technologies and doing the job of development seemed like good ideas at the time.

Now, in the field of energy transformation, we have a good platform of knowledge in many of the fields where we need to change. We know many things about change needs in transportation, utilities, industrial processes, the built environment, agriculture and behavior change. Yet, many people remain to become informed about these opportunities and even those who are already “in the know” need to sort out ideas and structure the arguments so that we can communicate the key ideas in a structured and coherent way.

It will also be much easier to get people to understand what we are saying if you, Mohammed in Pakistan, convey a message that is similar to the one that Hugo spreads in Germany and that Jaime is talking about in Chile. This does not need to be exactly the same, but we need to agree on some key points.

I suggest that an important similarity between messages in different countries is the one that market based incentives need to be complemented by planned and managed change projects. One other aspect is that all aspects of the change that is necessary will not be covered financially by money from the financial markets. Governments will need to invest and to some extent manage the change processes.

One other important aspect is that we need to combine competences in the project. We need people with different points of view, who could agree that change is necessary, but who do not necessarily share a consensus on everything in the change program. Some people are already aware and they are working on different aspects of technology development or energy analyses or environmental issues. We still need to spread the idea of cooperation to them, or some of them and we need to agree on how to cooperate, at least to some extent, which still remains to be discovered.

Some groups in society need to become aware of the pressing need for change, due to peak oil or to global warming. (The reason for change is not the most important thing to agree on, but peak oil experts may need to become better informed about global warming and experts in environmental issues need to become better informed about peak oil. I need to learn about all kinds of issues related to energy transformation and technology, time permitting.) Economists, to a large extent seem to be unaware of the pressing need for change and they many times argue that we can’t afford large scale change. Do not take my word for it. It is much better if you make up your mind yourself and start by using the below link to the Statements on Oil made by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 2005. It is succinct and makes a good introduction to the subject written by a very serious group of professors.

http://www.kva.se/KVA_Root/publications/committees/energy_statements1.pdf

Business managers and consultants also need to understand the need to change and to cooperate. Sometimes we, initially, need to take steps that do not seem to make financial or business sense at the time. I cannot tell people which these steps are, you will find them in the process of discovery.

Politicians! Yes. They also need to become informed about the need to change and about the options in each area. Politicians will need to understand the areas where market based change will work and in which areas we will need managed projects to drive change. These subjects are covered in depth in Global Energy Transformation, which is published today in the UK and on the 7th of July in the United States.

Friday, June 12, 2009 by Mats Larsson

Easy 1st steps or “low hanging fruit”

Wednesday, June 10, 2009 by Mats Larsson
In change management jargon companies that go about a large scale change program often look for “low hanging fruit”, this means areas where change effort could have a rapid pay-off. The news of such easy first steps is likely to improve morale and motivation for the project within the organization.
However, while, in some cases, success could be easily achieved in one area this does not mean that the same will be true for the program as a whole. Normally, it is not true. This means that initial success does not say anything about the prospects of success for the rest of the program. Only analysis and thorough planning can ascertain overall success.
Some hours ago I came up with an idea within energy transformation that seems like an opportunity for an easy first step. When I interviewed the environmental manager last year for a large Swedish food retail chain, she said that labelling all the products with their carbon dioxide footprints is very far away. This chain had only just started calculating the CO2 emissions from production to point of sales for 100 articles. These calculations have proved to be very complex and sometimes similar products, such as vegetables show very different results, depending on whether they have been transported to Sweden by truck from Spain or by boat from South America. The products from South America transported by boat show a much smaller CO2 footprint than similar products taken from Spain.
OK, we need to accept this. It is complicated. In some cases, however, when it comes to some products that sell in large volumes, it is less complicated. We could look upon these cases as “low hanging fruit” and it would be possible to start with them.
In the case of some goods sold in large quantities, such as bottled water, soda, beer, bread, flour, household paper etc transportation distances differ greatly and virtually all products are transported by truck. It would be very easy and inexpensive for stores to post the transportation distances from the breweries on a large board in the beverages department. Similar information could be posted in the bread department and everywhere where this information would be easy to access and for products for which the information is relatively easy for customers to interpret.
If there is a problem labelling peppers from Spain and South America, it would still be possible to identify fruit and vegetables that are locally or regionally grown. this could be done by using a separate area for these products or by posting a symbol beside the price of these products.
Maybe the largest retail chains will not be the ones that start this type of movement, but a smaller chain may find it interesting to attract enérgy conscious customers and then the large chains may have to follow.
In Sweden, the labelling of environmentally friendly detergents and other products started in the 1980’s by a store manager and owner who marked the environmentally friendly alternatives on the shelves for the benefit of consumers. Soon other stores and chains followed suit as it became obvious that this was a service that was valued by customers. Now, a similar action could be taken by store managers who would like to help consumers to identify energy efficient products.
However, as mentioned above, the opportunity to identify “low hanging fruit” does not mean that we do not need change management, analysis, a strategy and a plan in order to continue to reduce the energy consumption that is related to our patterns of consumption. It is not at all clear cut whether we should reduce our consumption of kiwi fruit from afar, or if we would be better off if we planned our shopping trips so that we could use less fuel going to the supermarket or mall.
We need to identify the energy savings that are less costly to make and that render the smallest reduction in well being, or that possibly even increases our well being.
The alternative, as mentioned before, will be to pass the task of saving energy on to others, which may seem like a good idea at this point, but such a decision will catch up with us sooner than we can imagine.

In change management jargon companies that go about a large scale change program often look for “low hanging fruit”, this means areas where change effort could have a rapid pay-off. The news of such easy first steps is likely to improve morale and motivation for the project within the organization.

However, while, in some cases, success could be easily achieved in one area this does not mean that the same will be true for the program as a whole. Normally, it is not true. This means that initial success does not say anything about the prospects of success for the rest of the program. Only analysis and thorough planning can ascertain overall success.

Some hours ago I came up with an idea within energy transformation that seems like an opportunity for an easy first step. When I interviewed the environmental manager last year for a large Swedish food retail chain, she said that labelling all the products with their carbon dioxide footprints is very far away. This chain had only just started calculating the CO2 emissions from production to point of sales for 100 articles. These calculations have proved to be very complex and sometimes similar products, such as vegetables show very different results, depending on whether they have been transported to Sweden by truck from Spain or by boat from South America. The products from South America transported by boat show a much smaller CO2 footprint than similar products taken from Spain.

OK, we need to accept this. It is complicated. In some cases, however, when it comes to some products that sell in large volumes, it is less complicated. We could look upon these cases as “low hanging fruit” and it would be possible to start with them.

In the case of some goods sold in large quantities, such as bottled water, soda, beer, bread, flour, household paper etc transportation distances differ greatly and virtually all products are transported by truck. It would be very easy and inexpensive for stores to post the transportation distances from the breweries on a large board in the beverages department. Similar information could be posted in the bread department and everywhere where this information would be easy to access and for products for which the information is relatively easy for customers to interpret.

If there is a problem labelling peppers from Spain and South America, it would still be possible to identify fruit and vegetables that are locally or regionally grown. this could be done by using a separate area for these products or by posting a symbol beside the price of these products.

Maybe the largest retail chains will not be the ones that start this type of movement, but a smaller chain may find it interesting to attract enérgy conscious customers and then the large chains may have to follow.

In Sweden, the labelling of environmentally friendly detergents and other products started in the 1980’s by a store manager and owner who marked the environmentally friendly alternatives on the shelves for the benefit of consumers. Soon other stores and chains followed suit as it became obvious that this was a service that was valued by customers. Now, a similar action could be taken by store managers who would like to help consumers to identify energy efficient products.

However, as mentioned above, the opportunity to identify “low hanging fruit” does not mean that we do not need change management, analysis, a strategy and a plan in order to continue to reduce the energy consumption that is related to our patterns of consumption. It is not at all clear cut whether we should reduce our consumption of kiwi fruit from afar, or if we would be better off if we planned our shopping trips so that we could use less fuel going to the supermarket or mall.

We need to identify the energy savings that are less costly to make and that render the smallest reduction in well being, or that possibly even increases our well being.

The alternative, as mentioned before, will be to pass the task of saving energy on to others, which may seem like a good idea at this point, but such a decision will catch up with us sooner than we can imagine.

Wednesday, June 10, 2009 by Mats Larsson

Discovering a change strategy for the energy sector

In the previous posting I suggested that change management is a process of discovery. How does this apply to the various fields related to energy?
Many people agree that we need to transform energy systems on a large scale and rapidly increase the share of renewable energy that we use. In the past people who have been interested in energy have discovered that we need to apply a number of different energy sources and technologies in order to achieve this. Yes, we do need photovoltaics, biofuels, fuel cells, electric vehicles, but we also need to reduce our energy use. At least we need to further analyse how much we would need of each of these and how much may become available in the future. Energy is complex, we use it for different purposes and we will need a number of different solutions.
Perhaps at this point we do not need to go much further debating the advantages or disadvantages of the different alternatives, we need to identify realistic maximum and minimum levels of supply and demand for various alternatives in the future and calculate investment levels that are necessary in order to achieve these. This will be a process of discovery, as there are no ready answers and we will debate a number of aspects in the near future.
We need also to estimate the amount of oil based products that we will have access to at different points in the future, based on realistic assumptions of reduced production from existing wells and realistic assumptions about new discoveries. These scenarios need to be developed on the country level, but also aggregated for groups of countries based on geography or other aspects. We also need to analyse and debate the consequences of reduced oil supply. The first people to experience a shortage will be the poor. A little later we will experience it because of reduced supply of the products that the poor supply to the rich, such as many things that are made in low cost countries. At the same time as this happens we will experience how fuel prices are increasing. Much later we will experience shortages of fuel at the pump.
As soon as possible, each country needs to develop a strategy and a plan based on expected future needs from a supply and demand perspective.
An alternative approach is the one applied at present in many countries, to base plans for the implementation of renewable fuels on the need to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. In order to decide which approach is more relevant, we need to make up our minds about the peak oil issue and our global ability to rapidly discover a large number of new oil wells that could make up for the depletion of existing ones. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences wrote a very brief and succinct report about this in 2005. It seems to still hold to a very large degree and what has happened since then is that we have depleted our oil reserves even further. Don’t take my word for it. Access the report via the link below!
http://www.kva.se/KVA_Root/publications/committees/energy_statements1.pdf

In the previous posting I suggested that change management is a process of discovery. How does this apply to the various fields related to energy?

Many people agree that we need to transform energy systems on a large scale and rapidly increase the share of renewable energy that we use. In the past people who have been interested in energy have discovered that we need to apply a number of different energy sources and technologies in order to achieve this. Yes, we do need photovoltaics, biofuels, fuel cells, electric vehicles, but we also need to reduce our energy use. At least we need to further analyse how much we would need of each of these and how much may become available in the future. Energy is complex, we use it for different purposes and we will need a number of different solutions.

Perhaps at this point we do not need to go much further debating the advantages or disadvantages of the different alternatives, we need to identify realistic maximum and minimum levels of supply and demand for various alternatives in the future and calculate investment levels that are necessary in order to achieve these. This will be a process of discovery, as there are no ready answers and we will debate a number of aspects in the near future.

We need also to estimate the amount of oil based products that we will have access to at different points in the future, based on realistic assumptions of reduced production from existing wells and realistic assumptions about new discoveries. These scenarios need to be developed on the country level, but also aggregated for groups of countries based on geography or other aspects. We also need to analyse and debate the consequences of reduced oil supply. The first people to experience a shortage will be the poor. A little later we will experience it because of reduced supply of the products that the poor supply to the rich, such as many things that are made in low cost countries. At the same time as this happens we will experience how fuel prices are increasing. Much later we will experience shortages of fuel at the pump.

As soon as possible, each country needs to develop a strategy and a plan based on expected future needs from a supply and demand perspective.

An alternative approach is the one applied at present in many countries, to base plans for the implementation of renewable fuels on the need to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. In order to decide which approach is more relevant, we need to make up our minds about the peak oil issue and our global ability to rapidly discover a large number of new oil wells that could make up for the depletion of existing ones. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences wrote a very brief and succinct report about this in 2005. It seems to still hold to a very large degree and what has happened since then is that we have depleted our oil reserves even further. Don’t take my word for it. Access the report via the link below!

http://www.kva.se/KVA_Root/publications/committees/energy_statements1.pdf

Wednesday, June 10, 2009 by Mats Larsson

Change Management = Discovery

Change management is a process of discovery. It involves finding and analysing opportunities and finding steps to take in order to implement new solutions. Change management could be applied in all areas in our private life and in society, but in our private life we rarely go about change as a planned process.
I sometimes use the example of the development of Lean Production to describe how change management works. During the late 1970’s and 1980’s many researchers, business leaders and consultants tried to find out what made Japanese companies so extraordinarily competitive. Nobody knew why. Some argued that the Japanese culture was key to this (the marketing guru Philip Kotler wrote a book about this together with a Japanese researcher), others argued that the particular Japanese management culture was different from the US and European management styles and principles (Pascale and Athos in “The Art of Japanese Management” for example).
In 1991 the book “The Machine that Changed the World” resulted from a large scale research project at MIT and the conclusion was that Japanese companies achieved their competitiveness by using less resources than their US and European counterparts. This was because they produced single cars based on customer orders, but in reality they were “lean” because they applied the principles of “Lean Manufacturing” and “Lean Management”. At this point the contents of the Lean Manufacturing toolchest were not mapped or understood in detail, but Toyota was identified as the originator of these principles, something that built on a previous interest in the Toyota principles. Now we have a very detailed tool-chest and numerous companies that work according to these principles. Still, however, we are in the process of discovery. A few years ago Jeffrey Liker published the book The Toyota Way, which is also the result of a series of large scale research projects and Liker has found a number of additional principles that build our understanding of Lean Production even further.
Companies use the principles discovered to manage change in their own organizations. This however, is also a process of discovery, since it is seldom easy to apply successful principles that have been developed in other settings in another particular company. This is true even for tried and tested principles like lean. Change is always a process of discovery in every part of the process.
This is sometimes forgotten. People who do not see the world as we do have been through different processes of discovery than we have ourselves. In order to make change possible we need to tell other people, who may seem like opponents at first, not about our views today, but about our processes of discovering these views. We also need to listen to people describing their processes of dicovering their views without interrupting them. We could not force our views upon them anyway.
When we understand each other’s processes of discovery, we need to embark on processes of mutual discovery where we can use the differing experiences of people to solve problems that seem impossible to solve at the outset. This is not simple, but it is simply how change management works…

Change management is a process of discovery. It involves finding and analysing opportunities and finding steps to take in order to implement new solutions. Change management could be applied in all areas in our private life and in society, but in our private life we rarely go about change as a planned process.

I sometimes use the example of the development of Lean Production to describe how change management works. During the late 1970’s and 1980’s many researchers, business leaders and consultants tried to find out what made Japanese companies so extraordinarily competitive. Nobody knew why. Some argued that the Japanese culture was key to this (the marketing guru Philip Kotler wrote a book about this together with a Japanese researcher), others argued that the particular Japanese management culture was different from the US and European management styles and principles (Pascale and Athos in “The Art of Japanese Management” for example).

In 1991 the book “The Machine that Changed the World” resulted from a large scale research project at MIT and the conclusion was that Japanese companies achieved their competitiveness by using less resources than their US and European counterparts. This was because they produced single cars based on customer orders, but in reality they were “lean” because they applied the principles of “Lean Manufacturing” and “Lean Management”. At this point the contents of the Lean Manufacturing toolchest were not mapped or understood in detail, but Toyota was identified as the originator of these principles, something that built on a previous interest in the Toyota principles. Now we have a very detailed tool-chest and numerous companies that work according to these principles. Still, however, we are in the process of discovery. A few years ago Jeffrey Liker published the book The Toyota Way, which is also the result of a series of large scale research projects and Liker has found a number of additional principles that build our understanding of Lean Production even further.

Companies use the principles discovered to manage change in their own organizations. This however, is also a process of discovery, since it is seldom easy to apply successful principles that have been developed in other settings in another particular company. This is true even for tried and tested principles like lean. Change is always a process of discovery in every part of the process.

This is sometimes forgotten. People who do not see the world as we do have been through different processes of discovery than we have ourselves. In order to make change possible we need to tell other people, who may seem like opponents at first, not about our views today, but about our processes of discovering these views. We also need to listen to people describing their processes of dicovering their views without interrupting them. We could not force our views upon them anyway.

When we understand each other’s processes of discovery, we need to embark on processes of mutual discovery where we can use the differing experiences of people to solve problems that seem impossible to solve at the outset. This is not simple, but it is simply how change management works…

Wednesday, June 10, 2009 by Mats Larsson

We need to create a broad Consensus

The goal of this blog and the book Global Energy Transformation is to find a way forward in the process of transforming large scale energy systems, including transportation, industrial processes and supply chains.
We need to learn from past experiences of successful industrial transformation and incremental development. In this process we need to create a mutual understanding among economists, environmentalists and peak oil experts of the opportunities and the restrictions for achieving this.
This blog may be somewhat “boring”, because there will be no attempts to make fun of the “others” who hold positions that  differ from our own. Because there are no “others” (except if you believe in alien visitors). I recognize that people with different backgrounds hold different views of issues related to energy, economics and the environment for a number of good (and sometimes “bad”, I suppose) reasons. What I will try to achieve is to create common theoretical and practical ground among experts from differend backgrounds.
One of the tools to do this will be to discuss different aspects of change management and how experiences from this field need to be applied in various energy related areas.

The goal of this blog and the book Global Energy Transformation is to find a way forward in the process of transforming large scale energy systems, including transportation, industrial processes and supply chains.

We need to learn from past experiences of successful industrial transformation and incremental development. In this process we need to create a mutual understanding among economists, environmentalists and peak oil experts of the opportunities and the restrictions for achieving this.

This blog may be somewhat “boring”, because there will be no attempts to make fun of the “others” who hold positions that  differ from our own. Because there are no “others” (except if you believe in alien visitors). I recognize that people with different backgrounds hold different views of issues related to energy, economics and the environment for a number of good (and sometimes “bad”, I suppose) reasons. What I will try to achieve is to create common theoretical and practical ground among experts from differend backgrounds.

One of the tools to do this will be to discuss different aspects of change management and how experiences from this field need to be applied in various energy related areas.

Wednesday, June 10, 2009 by Mats Larsson

Need for Change Management in the Energy Sector

The present debate about the transformation of global energy systems focuses either on the problem or problems themselves or on technology issues. There are books about global warming and peak oil and about the need to transform energy systems in order to avoid global disasters, and there are arguments that we need a hydrogen economy, a solar revolution or a large scale increase in nuclear power.
These are all necessary arguments, but a further analysis of the problems or an in-depth analysis of technology opportunities will not bring us much closer to the solution. The solution depends on managed change, which involves the development of high level strategies and detailed plans for the transformation from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources. We need to analyze and understand the sources of financing that we can rely upon to supply the necessary capital for this transformation and we need to start to rapidly implement these plans.
Yes, solar energy would be a good solution, as argued by Hermann Scheer, Travis Bradford and many others (see links below) but at present the cost of electricity produced from solar cells is about three times as high as electricity produced from nuclear or hydroelectric plants. This should not keep us from developing these new sources of energy, but we need a detailed plan, which also deals with the financial aspects of a large scale transformation to an energy system that at present is substantially more expensive than existing systems. The management of the transformation will be key to its success and arguments for large scale implementation of new systems are incomplete without an analysis of several of the aspects of change management.
I believe that the transformation from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is necessary, primarily because of the peak oil issue, which will force us to rethink many aspects of transport solutions. The solutions we develop will impact electricity systems as well as other energy systems. We need a plan!
http://www.hermannscheer.de/en/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=33&Itemid=7 ,
http://www.amazon.co.uk/Solar-Revolution-Economic-Transformation-Industry/dp/026202604X/ref=sr_1_2?ie=UTF8&s=books&qid=1244560782&sr=1-2
Wednesday, June 10, 2009 by Mats Larsson
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